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A material's microstructure can give a valuable insight into its properties and corrosion resistance. The volume fraction of inclusions and grain size are important characteristics that can affect several different material properties. A greater number of inclusions within a material can increase its strength as they can cause dislocation pile-ups [2, 10].

These inclusions can also have an effect on the pitting resistance of the material; some literature has suggested that inclusions and constituent particles can be initiation points for pitting corrosion []. The grain size and general microstructural texture were investigated through optical microscopy of cold-mounted T6 and T samples. A qualitative comparison of inclusion shape, size and density was conducted - no measurements were taken so this comparison is based on the optical images.

Each mounted sample contained three specimens to show each face as shown in Fig. Example of a cold-mounted specimen. The samples were polished to a 1p,m finish. The samples were then etched using the swab method and Keller's Etchant; the etchant was applied using a cotton ball for seconds per sample, thoroughly washed with water then rinsed with ethanol and dried. Digital micrographs were then taken of the samples at 20x, 50x or x magnifications. These images were then analysed using Image J, a public domain image analysis program. The line intercept method was used to determine the average size of the grains.

It was found that the length and width of the grains can be measured from face a, length and thickness from face b and face c shows the width and thickness. Three samples of each material were cold-mounted for microstructural analysis with each cold mount contained three faces as in Figure 1 b. Two grain maps are shown in Fig. The scale bars on these represent p,m. Table 1 shows the mean grain sizes and 95 percent confidence interval of the samples of T6 and T The data in Table 1 indicate that there were significant differences in the grain sizes of the two materials.

The comparison between T6 sheet and T extrusion reported here found a significant difference in the grain structures of each. It was found that, while both the sheet and extrusion had pancake-shaped grains much thinner than their length and width ; the sheet material had larger, more well-defined grains than the extrusion. It appeared that the extrusion had broken up grains that appear to have not recrystallised following the extruding process; the grains were significantly smaller than the grains in the sheet.

However the grains in the extrusion lined up to form a semi-continuous series of grain boundaries as can be seen in Fig. A simple comparison of the amount, size and density of inclusions in both materials was made based on visual inspection only. By comparing the images of the extruded and rolled samples it appears that the inclusions on both materials are very similar. The only main difference is that the inclusions in the extruded section are more structured and form into lines compared with the sheet; the sheet has a more random distribution of inclusions.

The aim of this paper was to assess the possibility of differences in the corrosion behaviour of T6 sheet and T extrusion, through an analysis of the grain structure. Important differences between the two materials were found; the extruded material had very small grains that formed a structured, semi-continuous line of grain boundaries. The authors hypothesise that this may have the ability to facilitate laminar intergranular corrosion.

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Kim, Huisung Investigation of multimodal forward scatter phenotyping from bacterial colonies. Kim, Hyung Suk Implementing a wireless monitoring solution for a biomechanical telemetry system. Kim, Janghyun Evaluating the performance of passive chilled beams with respect to energy efficiency and thermal comfort. Kim, Jeonghwan High extinction ratio subwavelength 1D infrared polarizer by nanoimprint lithography. Kim, Jongbum Plasmonic devices based on transparent conducting oxides for near infrared applications.

Kim, Jooho Examining consumers' risky food consumption behavior in restaurants. Kimmey, David L Feature extraction to improve nowcasting using social media event detection on cloud computing and sentiment analysis. Kim, Min Jung Restaurant menu design and food choice process. Kim, Nicholas Nakjoo Optimal design of sound absorbing systems with microperforated panels. Total return is comprised of both capital appreciation and income. This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy and hold shares of the Fund.

Shareholder Fees fees paid directly from your investment. Annual Fund Operating Expenses expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment. Management Fees. Distribution and Shareholder Service 12b-1 Fees. Other Expenses 1. Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses 1. Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses.

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Expense Example. This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions, your costs would be:. Table of Contents Portfolio Turnover. A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. The Advisor believes it can produce competitive returns by investing in higher quality companies or in companies with above-average yields where the Advisor believes the risk of a dividend cut is unlikely or well anticipated by the market.

Traditional fundamental analysis is conducted, collectively and individually, on existing holdings as well as potential buy candidates. After the fundamental analysis has been completed, the Advisor selects a portfolio of companies that the Advisor believes present an attractive trade-off between risk and return. The Advisor seeks to buy higher quality securities at attractive valuations and to identify a catalyst that is expected to produce attractive returns.

Table of Contents Under normal circumstances, the Fund expects to be primarily invested in common stocks of dividend-paying companies. The Fund may invest its assets in securities of U. Certain economic sectors may be overweighted compared to others because the Advisor seeks the best investment opportunities regardless of sector. The Advisor generally strives for below-average turnover with a preference for purchasing securities for the long-term.

All investments involve risks, and the Fund cannot guarantee that it will achieve its investment objective. An investment in the Fund is not insured or guaranteed by any government agency. Below are some of the specific risks of investing in the Fund. Table of Contents Performance. Performance information for the Fund has not been presented because, as of the date of this Prospectus, the Fund has not been in operation for a full calendar year. You may sell or redeem shares directly through the Fund or through your dealer or financial advisor.

Please contact your financial intermediary directly to find out if additional requirements apply. Tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of monies from those accounts. If you purchase Fund shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary such as a bank or trust company , the Fund and its related companies may pay the intermediary for the sale of Fund shares and related services.

These payments may create conflicts of interest by influencing the broker-dealer or other intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Traditional fundamental analysis includes balance sheet and income statement analysis, valuation analysis, discounted cash flow model, etc. After the fundamental analysis has been completed, the Advisor selects a portfolio of undervalued companies that the Advisor believes present an attractive trade-off between risk and return.

Table of Contents standard deviation of returns on an annualized basis. Lower standard deviation means lower volatility. Under normal circumstances, the Fund expects to be primarily invested in common stocks of dividend-paying companies. ADRs are receipts, issued by domestic banks, for shares of a foreign-based corporation that entitle the holders to dividends and capital gains on the underlying security.

The Advisor attempts to minimize short-term capital gains and postpone long-term gains when possible. The Fund may sell a security when the Advisor believes the company fundamentals have deteriorated, if the company decreases its dividends, or if the stock has become overvalued in the opinion of the Advisor. The Fund also may sell a security when the Advisor believes that a better investment opportunity is present. Government and agency securities.

In addition, value stocks may fall out of favor with investors and underperform growth stocks during given periods. Is the Fund right for you? The Fund may be suitable for:. Table of Contents General. Government securities, money market instruments, securities of money market funds or repurchase agreements. If the Fund invests in shares of a money market fund, the shareholders of the Fund generally will be subject to duplicative management fees.

As a result of engaging in these temporary measures, the Fund may not achieve its investment objective. To help the government fight the funding of terrorism and money laundering activities, federal law requires all financial institutions to obtain, verify, and record information that identifies each person who opens an account. This means that when you open an account, we will ask for your name, residential address, date of birth, government identification number and other information that will allow us to identify you. If we do not receive these required pieces of information, there may be a delay in processing your investment request, which could subject your investment to market risk.

If we are unable to immediately verify your identity, the Fund may restrict further investment until your identity is verified. If we close your account because we are unable to verify your identity, your investment will be subject to market fluctuation, which could result in a loss of a portion of your principal investment. The Advisor may, in its sole discretion, waive this minimum for existing clients of the Advisor and other related parties, and in certain other circumstances. The Fund may waive or lower investment minimums for investors who invest in the Fund through an asset-based fee program made available through a financial intermediary.

If your investment is aggregated into an omnibus account established by an investment advisor, broker or other intermediary, the account minimums apply to the omnibus account, not to your individual investment, however, the financial intermediary may also impose minimum requirements that are different from those set forth in this prospectus. If you choose to purchase or redeem shares directly from the Fund, you will not incur charges on purchases and redemptions.

However, if you purchase or redeem shares through a broker-dealer or another intermediary, you may be charged a fee by that intermediary. Initial Purchase. Mail the application and check to:. You must provide a signed application to Huntington Asset Services, Inc.

Wire orders will be accepted only on a day on which the Fund, its custodian and its transfer agent are open for business. A wire purchase will not be considered made until the wired money is received and the purchase is accepted by the Fund. Any delays which may occur in wiring money, including delays which may occur in processing by the banks, are not the responsibility of the Fund or its transfer agent. There is presently no fee for the receipt of wired funds, but the Fund may charge shareholders for this service in the future. Investors interested in exchanging securities must contact Crawford Investment Counsel, Inc.

The Advisor requires that investors represent that all securities offered to the Fund are not subject to any sale restrictions. Within five business days after receipt of the written description, the Advisor will advise the investor whether the securities to be exchanged are acceptable. There is no charge for this review by the Advisor. The Advisor will provide delivery instructions at the time of acceptance. A gain or loss for federal income tax purposes may be realized by the investor upon the exchange of securities, depending upon the adjusted tax basis and value of the securities tendered.

The Fund will accept securities in this manner only for purposes of investment, and not for resale. Additional Investments. You may purchase additional shares of the Fund at any time by mail, wire or automatic investment. Each additional mail purchase request must contain:.

Automatic Investment Plan. You may make regular investments in the Fund with an Automatic Investment Plan by completing the appropriate section of the account application or completing a systematic investment plan form with the proper signature guarantee and attaching a voided personal check. You may change the amount of your monthly purchase at any time. If an Automatic Investment Plan purchase is rejected by your bank, your shareholder account will be charged a fee to defray bank charges. Shares of the Fund may be an appropriate investment medium for tax-sheltered retirement plans, including: individual retirement plans IRAs ; simplified employee pensions SEPs ; k plans; qualified corporate pension and profit-sharing plans for employees ; tax-deferred investment plans for employees of public school systems and certain types of charitable organizations ; and other qualified retirement plans.

Please consult with an attorney or tax advisor regarding these plans. Other Purchase Information.

The Fund may limit the amount of purchases and refuse to sell shares to any person. If your check or wire does not clear, you will be responsible for any loss incurred by the Fund. You may be prohibited or restricted from making future purchases in the Fund. Checks must be made payable to the Fund. The Fund and its transfer agent may refuse any purchase order for any reason. The Fund has authorized certain broker-dealers and other financial institutions including their designated intermediaries to accept on its behalf purchase and sell orders.

The Fund is deemed to have received an order when the authorized person or designee accepts the order, and the order is processed at the NAV next calculated thereafter. You may receive redemption payments by check, ACH or federal wire transfer. This fee is subject to change. Any charges for wire redemptions will be deducted from your Fund account by redemption of shares.

The Fund does not intend to redeem shares in any form except cash. In the event that an in-kind distribution is made, you may incur additional expenses, such as the payment of brokerage commissions, on the sale or other disposition of the securities received from the Fund. If you redeem your shares through a broker-dealer or other institution, you may be charged a fee by that institution.

Your request should be addressed to:. Your request for a redemption must include your letter of instruction, including the Fund name, account number, account name s , the address, and the dollar amount or number of shares you wish to redeem. Requests to sell shares that are received in good order are processed at the net asset value next calculated after we receive your order in proper form.

To be in proper order, your request must be signed by all registered share owner s in the exact name s and any special capacity in which they are registered. The Fund may require that signatures be guaranteed if you request the redemption check be made payable to any person other than the shareholder s of record or mailed to an address other than the address of record, if the mailing address has been changed within 30 days of the redemption request, or in certain other circumstances, such as to prevent unauthorized account transfers or redemptions. Signature guarantees are for the protection of shareholders.

All redemptions requiring a signature guarantee must utilize a New Technology Medallion stamp, generally available from the bank where you maintain your checking or savings account. For joint accounts, both signatures must be guaranteed. At the discretion of the Fund or the transfer agent, you may be required to furnish additional legal documents prior to a redemption to insure proper authorization. You must first complete the Optional Telephone Redemption and Exchange section of the investment application or provide a signed letter of instruction with the proper signature guarantee stamp to institute this option.

The Fund, the transfer agent and the custodian are not liable for following redemption instructions communicated by telephone to the extent that they reasonably believe the telephone instructions. Table of Contents to be genuine. However, if they do not employ reasonable procedures to confirm that telephone instructions are genuine, they may be liable for any losses due to unauthorized or fraudulent instructions. Procedures employed may include recording telephone instructions and requiring a form of personal identification from the caller. The Fund or the transfer agent may terminate the telephone redemption procedures at any time.

During periods of extreme market activity, it is possible that shareholders may encounter some difficulty in telephoning the Fund, although neither the Fund nor the transfer agent has ever experienced difficulties in receiving and, in a timely fashion, responding to telephone requests for redemptions.

If you are unable to reach the Fund by telephone, you may request a redemption by mail. Additional Information. Redemptions specifying a certain date or share price cannot be accepted and will be returned. You will be mailed the proceeds on or before the fifth business day following the redemption.

However, payment for redemption made against shares purchased by check will be made only after the check has been collected, which normally may take up to fifteen calendar days. Also, when the New York Stock Exchange is closed or when trading is restricted for any reason other than its customary weekend or holiday closing, or under any emergency circumstances as determined by the Securities and Exchange Commission the Fund may suspend redemptions or postpone payment dates. You may be assessed a fee if the Fund incurs bank charges because you direct the Fund to re-issue a redemption check.

Redemption proceeds that are reinvested are subject to the risk of loss like any other investment in the Fund. You may increase the value of your shares in the Fund to the minimum amount within the day period. All shares of the Fund are also subject to involuntary redemption if the Board of Trustees determines to liquidate the Fund. In such event, the Fund will provide notice to shareholders, but the Fund will not be required to obtain shareholder approval prior to such liquidation. An involuntary liquidation will create a capital gain or capital loss which may have tax consequences about which you should consult your tax advisor.

Fund Policy on Market Timing. The Fund discourages market timing. Table of Contents movements. Market timing may result in dilution of the value of Fund shares held by long-term shareholders, disrupt portfolio management and increase Fund expenses for all shareholders.

The Board of Trustees has adopted a policy directing the Fund to reject any purchase order with respect to any investor, a related group of investors or their agent s , where it detects a pattern of purchases and sales of the Fund that indicates market timing or trading that it determines is abusive.

This policy generally applies to all Fund shareholders. While the Fund attempts to deter market timing, there is no assurance that the Fund will be able to identify and eliminate all market timers. Omnibus accounts typically provide the Fund with a net purchase or redemption request on any given day where purchasers and redeemers of Fund shares are netted against one another and the identities of individual purchasers and redeemers whose orders are aggregated are not known by the Fund. Consequently, the Fund may not have knowledge of the identity of investors and their transactions.

However, there can be no guarantee that all excessive, short-term or other abusive trading activities will be detected, even with such an agreement in place. Certain Financial Intermediaries, in particular retirement plan sponsors and administrators, may have less restrictive policies regarding short-term trading. The Fund reserves the right to reject any purchase order for any reason, including purchase orders that it does not think are in the best interests of the Fund or its shareholders, or if the Fund thinks that the trading is abusive.

The Fund has not entered into any arrangements with any person to permit frequent purchases and redemptions of Fund shares. The NAV is calculated at the close of trading normally p. Requests to purchase and sell shares are processed at the NAV next calculated after the Fund receives your order in proper form.

Table of Contents Securities held by the Fund generally are valued at market value. Short-term securities with maturities of 60 days or less are valued based on amortized cost. If a market quotation is not readily available or is deemed unreliable, the security will be valued at a fair value determined in good faith by the Advisor in accordance with policies and procedures adopted by the Board of Trustees.

When fair value pricing of securities is employed, the prices of securities used by the Fund to calculate its NAV may differ from market quotations or official closing prices. Arbitrage opportunities may exist when trading in a portfolio security is halted and does not resume before the Fund calculates its NAV. These arbitrage opportunities may enable short-term traders to dilute the NAV of long-term investors. Dividends, Distributions and Taxes.

Dividends and Distributions. The Fund typically distributes to its shareholders as dividends substantially all of its net investment income and any realized net capital gains. These distributions are automatically reinvested in the Fund unless you request cash distributions on your application or through a written request.

Net investment income distributed by the Fund generally will consist of interest income, if any, and dividends received on investments, less expenses. The dividends you receive, whether or not reinvested, will be taxed as ordinary income, except as described below including in the table. Dividends normally will be distributed by the Fund on a quarterly basis. The Fund will typically distribute net realized capital gains the excess of net long-term capital gain over net short-term capital loss , if any, to its shareholders once a year.

Capital gains are generated when the Fund sells its capital assets for a profit. Capital gains are taxed differently depending on how long the Fund has held the capital asset sold. Distributions of gains recognized on the sale of capital assets held for one year or less are taxed at ordinary income rates; distributions of gains recognized on the sale of capital assets held longer than one year are taxed at long-term capital gains rates regardless of how long you have held your shares.

If the Fund distributes an amount exceeding its income and gains, this excess will generally be treated as a non-taxable return of capital. Table of Contents Unless you indicate another option on your account application, any dividends and capital gain distributions paid to you by the Fund automatically will be invested in additional Fund shares. The Fund will send dividends and capital gain distributions elected to be received as cash to the address of record or bank of record on the applicable account.

Your distribution option will automatically be converted to having all dividends and other distributions reinvested in additional shares if any of the following occur:. When reinvested, those amounts are subject to market risk like any other investment in the Fund. You may want to avoid making a substantial investment when the Fund is about to make a taxable distribution because you would be responsible for any taxes on the distribution regardless of how long you have owned your shares. These transactions typically create the tax liabilities described in the table below for taxable accounts.

The following discussion reflects current law. Type of Transaction. Tax Status. An additional 3. However, to the extent that the Fund has ordinary income from investments in debt securities, for example, such as interest income, dividends paid by the Fund and attributable to that income will not qualify for the reduced tax rate.

If shares of the Fund are purchased within 30 days before or after redeeming other shares of the Fund at a loss, all or a portion of that loss will not be deductible and will increase the basis of the newly purchased shares. If shares of the Fund are sold at a loss after being held by a shareholder for six months or less, the loss will be long-term, instead of short-term, capital loss to the extent of any capital gain distributions received on the shares.

Any tax withheld may be applied against the tax liability on your federal income tax return. Because your tax situation is unique, you should consult your tax professional about federal, state and local tax consequences. Table of Contents Cost Basis Reporting. The Fund has chosen High Cost as its standing default tax lot identification method for all shareholders. The tax lot identification method is the way the Fund will determine which specific shares are deemed to be sold when there are multiple purchases including reinvested dividends and declared or reinvested capital gain distributions on different dates at differing net asset values, and the entire position is not sold at one time.

Please refer to the appropriate Treasury Department regulations or consult your tax advisor with regard to your personal circumstances. General Disclaimer. You should consult independent sources, which may include a tax professional, with respect to any decisions you may make with respect to choosing a tax lot identification method. Crawford Investment Counsel, Inc. The Advisor has been providing portfolio management services since when it was founded by John H. Crawford, III.

The Advisor provides investment advice to separately managed equity, fixed income and balanced portfolios of high net worth clients, pension plans, trust, and other institutional investors. For its advisory services, the Advisor is entitled to receive a fee at the annual rate of 1.

The Advisor contractually has agreed to waive its fee and, to the extent necessary, reimburse certain operating expenses so that total annual operating expenses, excluding any 12b-1 fees, brokerage fees and commissions, borrowing costs such as interest and dividend expenses on securities sold short , taxes, any indirect fees and expenses such as fees and expenses of acquired funds, and extraordinary litigation expenses, do not exceed 1.

Each waiver or reimbursement of an expense by the Advisor is subject to repayment by the Fund within the three fiscal years following the fiscal year in which the expense or reimbursement was incurred, provided that the Fund is able to make the repayment without exceeding the 1. The investment decisions for the Fund are made by John H.

John H. In addition to leading investment committee meetings and to supervising the team of dedicated equity analysts, he conducts stock specific research, and serves as portfolio manager of the Fund and of another mutual fund managed by the Advisor. He joined the Advisor in Crawford began his career in the investment industry at Merrill Lynch Capital Markets in Because the Fund has recently commenced operations, there are no financial highlights available at this time. In the event that you hold shares of the Fund through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary, the privacy policy of your financial intermediary would govern how your nonpublic personal information would be shared with nonaffiliated third parties.

Categories of Information the Fund Collects. The Fund collects the following nonpublic personal information about you:. Categories of Information the Fund Discloses. The Fund does not disclose any nonpublic personal information about its current or former shareholders to unaffiliated third parties, except as required or permitted by law. Confidentiality and Security. The Fund restricts access to your nonpublic personal information to those persons who require such information to provide products or services to you. The Fund maintains physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards that comply with federal standards to guard your nonpublic personal information.

Disposal of Information. The Fund, through its transfer agent, has taken steps to reasonably ensure that the privacy of your nonpublic personal information is maintained at all times, including in connection with the disposal of information that is no longer required to be maintained by the Fund. You can find additional information about the Fund in the following documents:. The reports also may include a discussion by Fund management of recent market conditions, economic trends, and investment strategies that significantly affected Fund performance during the reporting period.

You may also request other information about the Fund and make shareholder inquiries. Call the SEC at for room hours and operation. Investment Company Act A Series of the Unified Series Trust. The Trust Agreement permits the Trustees to issue an unlimited number of shares of beneficial interest of separate series without par value. The Fund is one of a series of funds currently authorized by the Trustees.

The Fund does not issue share certificates. Each share represents an equal proportionate interest in the assets and liabilities belonging to the Fund and is entitled to such dividends and distributions out of income belonging to the Fund as are declared by the Trustees. The shares do not have cumulative voting rights or any preemptive or conversion rights, and the Trustees have the authority from time to time to divide or combine the shares of any series into a greater or lesser number of shares of that series so long as the proportionate beneficial interest in the assets belonging to that series and the rights of shares of any other series are in no way affected.

In case of any liquidation of a series, the holders of shares of the series being liquidated will be entitled to receive as a class a distribution out of the assets, net of the liabilities, belonging to that series. Expenses attributable to any series are borne by that series. Any general expenses of the Trust not readily identifiable as belonging to a particular series are allocated by or under the direction of the Trustees in such manner as the Trustees determine to be fair and equitable.

No shareholder is liable to further calls or to assessment by the Trust without his or her express consent. Any Trustee of the Trust may be removed by vote of the shareholders holding not less than two-thirds of the outstanding shares of the Trust. The Trust does not hold an annual meeting of shareholders.

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When matters are submitted to shareholders for a vote, each shareholder is entitled to one vote for each whole share he owns and fractional votes for fractional shares he owns. All shares of the Fund have equal liquidation rights. The Trust Agreement can be amended by the Trustees, except that certain amendments that could adversely affect the rights of shareholders must be approved by the shareholders affected.

All shares of the Fund are subject to involuntary redemption if the Trustees determine to liquidate the Fund. The Fund will provide notice to the shareholders if the Board determines, in its sole judgment, to liquidate the Fund, but the Fund will not be required to obtain shareholder approval prior to such liquidation. An involuntary liquidation will create a capital gain or a capital loss, which may have tax consequences about which you should consult your tax advisor.

The Fund has authorized one or more brokers to receive on its behalf purchase and redemption orders. The performance of the Fund may be compared in publications to the performance of various indices and investments for which reliable performance data is available. The performance of the Fund may be compared in publications to averages, performance rankings, or other information prepared by recognized mutual fund statistical services.

This section contains additional information regarding some of the investments the Fund may make and some of the techniques it may use. Equity Securities. Equity securities include common stock and common stock equivalents such as rights and warrants, and convertible securities. Warrants are options to purchase equity securities at a specified price valid for a specific time period. Rights are similar to warrants, but normally have a short duration and are distributed by the issuer to its shareholders. The Fund will invest principally in a portfolio of equity securities of companies that the Advisor believes to be undervalued.

Securities of a company may be undervalued as a result of overreaction by investors to unfavorable news about a company, industry or the stock market in general, or as a result of a market decline, poor economic conditions, tax-loss selling or actual or anticipated unfavorable developments affecting the company. The Fund will invest in equity securities that the Advisor believes have above-average total return potential. The criterion used to identify such stocks include a history of consistent increasing dividend payouts, predictable and consistent earnings growth and strong balance sheet presence.

Foreign Securities. ADRs are receipts, issued by domestic banks, for shares of a foreign-based company that entitle the holder to dividends and capital gains on the underlying security. Generally, Depositary Receipts in registered form are designed for use in the U. Prices of ADRs are quoted in U. While ADRs do not eliminate all the risk associated with foreign investments, by investing in ADRs rather than directly in the stock of foreign issuers, the Fund will avoid currency risks during the settlement period for either purchases or sales.

In general, there is a large, liquid market in the U. The information available for ADRs is subject to the accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards of the U. EDRs and GDRs may not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as the underlying securities into which they may be converted. Table of Contents Depositary Receipts reduce but do not eliminate all the risk inherent in investing in the securities of foreign issuers.

To the extent that the Fund acquires Depositary Receipts through banks that do not have a contractual relationship with the foreign issuer of the security underlying the Depositary Receipt to issue and service such Depositary Receipts, there may be an increased possibility that the Fund would not become aware of and be able to respond to corporate actions such as stock splits or rights offerings involving the foreign issuer in a timely manner. Other foreign securities may be denominated in U. Investing abroad also involves different political and economic risks.

Foreign investments may be affected by actions of foreign governments adverse to the interests of U. There may be a greater possibility of default by foreign governments or foreign government-sponsored enterprises. Investments in foreign countries also involve a risk of local political, economic or social instability, military action or unrest, or adverse diplomatic developments. Convertible Securities. A convertible security is a bond, debenture, preferred stock or other security that may be converted into or exchanged for a prescribed amount of common stock.

Generally, investments in securities in the lower rating categories provide higher yields but involve greater volatility of price and risk of loss of principal and interest than investments in securities with higher ratings. In addition, lower ratings reflect a greater possibility of an adverse change in the financial conditions affecting the ability of the issuer to make payments of principal and interest. The market price of lower-rated securities generally responds to short-term corporate and market developments to a greater extent than higher-rated securities which react primarily to fluctuations in the general level of interest rates.

In the past, economic downturns or an increase in interest rates have under certain circumstances caused a higher incidence of default by the issuers of these securities and may do so in the future, especially in the case of highly leveraged issuers. The prices for these securities may be affected by legislative and regulatory developments.

For example, federal rules were adopted that required savings and loan associations gradually to reduce their holdings of high-yield securities. An effect of this legislation may be to significantly depress the prices of outstanding lower-rated securities. The market for lower-rated securities may be less liquid than the market for higher-rated securities.

Therefore, judgment may at times play a greater role in valuing these securities than in the case of higher-rated securities, and it also may be more difficult during certain adverse market conditions to sell lower-rated securities at their fair value to meet redemption requests or to respond to changes in the market. The Advisor will consider all factors which it deems appropriate, including ratings, in making investment decisions for the Fund and will attempt to minimize investment risk through conditions and trends. While the Advisor may refer to ratings, it does not rely exclusively on ratings, but makes its own independent and ongoing review of credit quality.

Preferred Stock. Preferred stock has a preference in liquidation and, generally dividends over common stock but is subordinated in liquidation to debt. As a general rule the market value of preferred stocks with fixed dividend rates and no conversion rights varies inversely with interest rates and perceived credit risk, with the price determined by the dividend rate. Some preferred stocks are convertible into other securities for example, common stock at a fixed price and ratio or upon the occurrence of certain events. The market price of convertible preferred stocks generally reflects an element of conversion value.

Because many preferred stocks lack a fixed maturity date, these securities generally fluctuate substantially in value when interest rates change; such fluctuations often exceed those of long-term bonds of the same issuer. Some preferred stocks pay an adjustable dividend that may be based on an index, formula, auction procedure or other dividend rate reset mechanism.

In the absence of credit deterioration, adjustable rate preferred stocks tend to have more stable market values than fixed rate preferred stocks. All preferred stocks are also subject to the same types of credit risks of the issuer as corporate bonds. In addition, because preferred stock is junior to debt securities and other obligations of an issuer, deterioration in the credit rating of the issuer will cause greater changes in the value of a preferred stock than in a more senior debt security with similar yield characteristics. Repurchase Agreements.

A repurchase agreement is a short-term investment in which the purchaser i. Government or by an agency of the U. In the event of a bankruptcy or other default of the seller, the Fund could experience both delays in liquidating the underlying security and losses in value.